It is up to the individual breed associations to establish standards for breed composition, but we can provide a tool for studying possible rules. The following table is an excerpt from the second table above. The shaded portion of the table represents matings that are not permitted by the proposed breed association rules presented earlier. We are interested in answering the question...

Birth Defects: Cleft Palate Why and When


Hope that you never have a litter with cleft palates. But if you do, this may explain the cause of at least some cases.



The most common congenital anomaly of the scrotum and testicles is the apparent absence of one or both gonads. I use the word “apparent” because the missing testicle(s) usually are actually present inside the body cavity of the dog.

Breeding Schemes

Breeders often talk about inbreeding and outcrossing as though they were the only possibilities -- and generally with negative comments about the latter. There are other possibilities, and I have long been a proponent of assortative mating. It is not a theoretical concept that doesn't work in practice; I know several breeders who do it and achieve good results. This essay will attempt to explain why it is a good idea, but first I need to define the aternatives.

Purebred Dog Breeds into the Twenty-First Century: Achieving Genetic Health for Our Dogs

A correct and full understanding of these simple truisms is vital to the proper functioning of the entire canine fancy and to the health and well being of the animals which are the object of that fancy.

Anatomy of the German Shepherd


For breed judges, Koermeister and breeders the evaluation of the German Shepherd dog is a daily activity. For all others, it is likely of interest to know how a dog - especially your own - is evaluated.

Angles Front and Rear


The Front variously called the front assembly, forequarters, or shoulder, the whole combination made by the shoulder blade (scapula), upper arm (humerus), breastbone (sternum), and their related soft tissues is at the heart of much poor movement in German Shepherd Dogs the world over.